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Day 38 A. Draw and Explain the stages of mitosis. B. Why do chemotherapy patients lose their hair?
January 16, 2014 at 7:53am

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Selena Clem
January 27, 2014 at 8:46pm

Parent: The stages of mitosis can be remembered through the acronym IPPMAT Cytokinesis Cleavage. The first phase, Interphase, is when the DNA of the parent cell replicates. In the Prophase, the DNA is packaged into chromosomes and the centrosomes begin to produce the mitotic spindle. During the Prometaphase, the mitotic spindle attaches to the chromosomes at kinetochores located on their centromeres and the nucleus is dissolved. In the Metaphase the chromosomes are lined up along the metaphase plate and then separated in the Anaphase. The cell finally divides in the telophase, in which the cleavage furrow is formed by micro filaments, and the daughter cells fully form after Cytokinesis. Chemotherapy patients lose their hair due to the treatment targeting mitotically active cells which are mostly cancer cells, but also hair follicles.

Student: In the interphase the cell grows (G1), replicates DNA (S), grows more (G2), and moves on to the mitotic phase (M). The chromatin is packaged in the Prophase and then loses it's nucleus in the Prometaphase and lines up the chromosomes in the Metaphase. The chromosomes divide in the Anaphase and the cell itself divides during Telophase and Cytokinesis, producing 2 daughter cells identical to the parent (2n). In Chemotherapy, the chemicals used are given to be absorbed during the G1 and G2 of interphase, which most cancer cells go through often due to their rapid division. The chemicals kill the cells, but they also harm other actively dividing cells like the ones in our hair.

Sophie Wulfing
January 28, 2014 at 8:34pm

Parent- Interphase - DNA replication& centrosomes replicate.  Then Prophase chromatin in the nucleus organizes itself into chromosomes; Centrosomes move apart and grow microtubules.  3) Prometaphase; nuclear envelop dissolves & spindles begin to hook up with their sister chromitides.  4) Metaphase; when the sister chromotides align in the cell - the metaphase plate.  5) Anaphase; sister chromatides are ripped apart by the spindle pulling them apart.  6) Telephase - cleavage furrow forms which begins to tie the two cells off from each other; they're made by microfilaments.  Also, chromatin and nuclei begin to form in their respective new homes.  

Chemo patients don't grow hair because the chemo poisons the cells, especially mitotically active cells.And that's what skin and hair cells are, and also the digestive tract.

Sophie- I need to reveiw the cell cycle, and how after telophase, the cell  goes back into interphase, where it goes through growing periods to be able to do mitosis again. Also, need to not forget the duplication of centrosomes through interphase and that they move apart during prophase, as they become asters, and grow spindles.

Hitesh Boipally
December 30, 2017 at 4:56pm

Parent:

A. Mitosis includes, Interphase - where the DNA replicates and also chromosomes replicate. Prophase - Centrosomes move apart to form the mitotic spindle and the chromatin in the nucleus forms into chromosomes. Prometaphase - nuclear envelope breaks down and the spindle invades the nucleus. Metaphase -  Chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate. Anaphase -  Non kinetochore microtubules push the cell further apart, while the kinetochore microtubules pull the sister chromatids apart. Telophase - Cleavage furrow is formed with centrosome in each daughter cell. In each daughter cell a nucleus begins forming with the same number of chromosomes as the original parent cell. In Cytokinesis the cell splits along the cleavage furrow splitting the cell into two daughter cells. The two cells can now enter the Interphase and repeat the mitosis.

B. Cancer cells are fast dividing cells. Chemotherapy kills fast diving cells which includes cells like hair cells, fingernails, skin and digestive tract cell. So patients undergoing chemotherapy will lose hair.

Student:

A. I better understood how the various checkpoints factor into Mitosis through reviewing the lesson with my parents and cyclin is an important factor of passing those specific checkpoints. The way that cells build up cyclin, allowing the CDKs to be activated and pass further checkpoints through the interphase became more clear to me. Furthermore, I also better understood the process of how the chromosomes take shape from the chromatin becoming more and more tightly packaged. 

B. By explaining the process of how cancer cells are some of the most mitotically active cells and how this causes for their fast growth and damage to the body, I better understood why it was necessary for hair to be damaged as well through chemotherapy. Since chemotherapy attacks all fast dividing cells, which unfortunately happens to include hair, along with various other important cell parts hair is damaged as well, something I learned through explaining it to my parents.

Jillian Berkenkotter
January 23, 2018 at 5:57pm

Parent: 

First she started off by teaching me the acronym to remember the stages of mitosis IPPMAT. The steps of meiosis are Interphase, Prophase, Prometaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase and Cytokinesis. In Interphase is where the DNA replicates. Prophase- Chromatin condenses into chromosomes. Prometaphase- Nuclear membrane breaks down the Kinetochore microtubules invade nuclear space and attach to kinetochores. Metaphase- chromosomes line up along the metaphase plate. Anaphase- chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell. Telophase- the chromosomes at the poles are starting to diffuse and the nuclear envelope is reforming. Cytokinesis- chromosomes unwind into chromatin. Chemotherapy patients lose their hair because the Cancer cell divide at a fast rate. 

 

Student:

Teaching the stages of mitosis to my parents and going through each step helped me clarify whats occuring in each stage. I started off by telling them the acronym we learned in class IPPMAT. That helped them remember the stages in the correct order. Reviewing the question on chemotherapy patients helped me relearn about the cancer cells and because of the cancer cells that's why they lose their hair because the cancer cells are diving at a fast rate.  

Estelle Neathery
January 25, 2018 at 10:11pm

Parent: First, I learned that mitosis was the mechanism in which cells reproduce. Estelle then taught me the the different phases of mitosis, which are interphase, prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase and cytokinesis. The cell first starts as "diploid" and first replicates dna and chromosomes. "Centrosomes" move in and form a spindle, then the chromosomes are lined up on the metaphase plate, after the nuclear envelope dissolves. In anaphase the chromosomes separate and eventually form 2 cells. 

Cancer is treated with chemotherapy. Chemotherapy kills cells that divide quickly so this especially affects hair cells. 

Student- I better learned the changes that chromosomes and dna undergo in mitosis. Explaining this to my mom helped me notice specific steps that I need to make sure not to forget, like the formation of the spindle and dissolving of the nucleus. In general, simplifying the concept to my mom lets me comprehend the concept as a whole more efficiently. 

Saanvi Mehrtora
January 27, 2019 at 6:35pm

Student:

I taught my parent about mitosis and its phases. I explained to them that Interphase is the phase in which the cell gets bigger and DNA gets copied. Basically, this is the phase in which the cell is prepping to divide into 2 identical daughter cells. The next phase is Prophase, in this phase, the chromatin condenses to form chromosomes and the nucleolus dissapears. The next phase is Prometaphase, in this phase, the nucleur membrane dissoles and and the chromosomes start to move. In Metaphase, the microtubules come out of the centromeres and the chromosomes line up in the middle with spindle fibers attatched to their centromeres. The chromosomes seperate in Anaphase. After Anaphase, the chromosomes are at seprate regions in Telaphase. During Cytokinesis, the cleavage furrow forms and the cell splits into 2 identical daughter cells. I also explained to my parent that Chemotheraphy patients lose their hair because Chemo kills good and bad cells. Explaining this ETD to my Mom made me understand it better.

Parent:

Saanvi explained to me the details of Interphase,Prometaphase,Prophase,Metaphase,Anaphase,Telophase and Cytokinesis. She explained to me that one cell splits into 2 cells by going through these phases. She explained to me that the cell first gets bigger and copies its DNA. Then it condenses its genetic information to form chromosomes. These chromosomes then line up at the center of the cell and split. The chromosomes then end up at two different sides of the cell. This leads to cytokinesis. This is where a cleavage furrow forms and the cell splits. She also explained that Chemotherapy kills good and bad cells. That is why patients can lose their hair because of the fact that it can damage the hair follicles of a patient. 

 

 

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