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ETD 12: Draw and Fully label a 4 base pai long section of DNA with directionality.
October 10, 2013 at 11:46am


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Benjamin Niesner
October 11, 2015 at 8:02pm

Student: I talked with my Mom about how genes become proteins by many steps of transcription to translation. I showed her the poster model worksheet and ran her through the sequence of that. DNA is transcribed into mRNA which runs 5' to 3'. I mainly focused on the point of what happens inside the ribosome. This mRNA runs through a ribosome while tRNA goes through the APE sites inside the ribosome. This tRNA first stops at the P site pairing its anicodon with the first mRNA codon, AUG. Then the next tRNA comes into the ribosome into the A site and pairs its anticodon to the second mRNA codon. With these amino acids on the tRNA right next to each other, the one in the A site connects its AA to the one in the AA and then the first tRNA leaves the ribosome. This process keeps happening until the last tRNA reaches the stop codon and hydrolysis breaks the ribosomes and mRNA. All the AA are also broken off by themselves creating the polypeptide bond which is the protein.   

Parent:  Benjamin taught me how a gene is turned into a protein and I learned that there are many detailed, tiny steps that are crucial to ensuring the protein sequence is correct.  He told me about the analogy of "TRNA acting as pizza trucks". Very helpful! :)

Amber Neathery- Period 3
October 28, 2015 at 8:40pm

Parent: I found it to be interesting that dna lasts longer than rna. It was new that the phosphate backbone runs from 3' to 5' and that dna is made of phosphate, nitrogen bases, and nucleotides. 

Student: I teaching my padre, I remembered that DNA stores information better than RNA because it is double stranded and thus not broken down as quickly. I went over the basic structure of DNA as having a nitrogenous base, phosphate backbone, and nucleotides that ends with AUG, UAA, or UGA and starts with AUG. Lastly, I went over the Central Dogma of DNA --> mRNA --> Polypeptide, which was a good reminder. 

Kate Freeman
January 18, 2016 at 8:00pm

Parent: Kate taught me about the structure of DNA and how it has a phosphate backbone, nitrogenous bas, and nucleotides with the endings AUG, UAA, and UGA and starts with AUG. She then went on to describe the processes of transcription and translation and how they function within the ribosome.

Student: I explained to my Dad that DNA acts as a storage to protect the code whereas RNA is the messenger and provides information and makes it easier to read. I then discussed transcription and translation. DNA is transcribed into mRNA and then runs through the ribsome where tRNA goes through the A P and E sites. I then went on to describe the rest of the process, describing that DNA has a nitrogenous base, nucleotides (AUG, UAA, and UGA), and a phosphate backbone.

Adam Wulfing
January 20, 2016 at 8:07pm

Parent:  Phosphorous back-bone, a sugar, a nitrogenous base.  Different possible codes:  As to Ts, Cs to Gs.In order to replicate pieces always start with AUG.  

Student:  DNA holds the code of what and who we are. Dna has a very important structure with its sugar, base and phosphate. in order to replicate this it must go through transcription and translation.

Connor Heintz
October 05, 2016 at 10:21pm

Parent:  Connor explained to me the process of protein synthesis, meaning how our genes make proteins.  He explained how the DNA code is transcribed to the mRNA, and then how the mRNA leaves the nucleus and binds into the lower subunit of a ribosome.  Amino acids and anticodons (in the form of pizza truck!) come and pair up with a section of the strand and go through an intricate process of being smashed together (translation).  They form an amino acid chain, which then leaves the ribosome once it's done translating.  The amino acid chain is a protein, and can now go perform it's function in the body.  We can't exist without protein synthesis.  I found the matchups in the code (A to T/U, C to G) very interesting, and how the two DNA strands are held together. 

Student: I taught my mom about what I learned today in class and all about protein synthesis and how proteins are formed through our genes and how that works. I taught her about how the mRNA carries the messages of the DNA out of the nucleus and how the 5' cap of the mRNA locks into the lower subunit of the ribosome. I taught her how the EPA works and how the strand is read from 5' to 3', and that even though it works for EPA, it goes APE. I taught her how the tRNA (pizza truck) carries a specific amino acid and an anticodon to go with a certain codon in the mRNA strand. I then explained how the tRNA drops the amino acid and anticodon off and the anticodon and codon get smashed together and for a peptide bond, where they then leave the binding site and start the amino acid chain (or polypeptide). Lastly I said how the strand keeps translating until the ending codon, whose purpose is to stop the chain, and hydrolysis is used to then stop the ribosome and chain from working, and the amino acid chain is complete and can go out and perform its function as a protein.


Madi Long
October 06, 2016 at 7:31pm

Student: I discussed with my mom about the molecular structure of a 4 base pair of DNA, and the overall differences of DNA and RNA, which helped me learn more about these topics. DNA contains deoxyribose, phosphate backbone, and nitrogenous base thymine. While RNA contains ribose and nitrogenous base uracil. The single stand of DNA is 5' to 3' and is held together by hydrogen bonds to its antiparallel complementary stand.

Parent: I learned there are 2 strands to DNA that compliment each other. I also learned that DNA is the storage for genes and RNA is the messenger.

Katarina Zosel
October 30, 2017 at 9:31pm

Student: I explained to my mom the basic structure of nucleotides including the phosphate backbone, nitrogenous base, and pentose group. It was good for me to remember the difference between a purine, (a and G) with 2 attached groups, and a pyrimidines with only 1. It also helped me visualize the 3 to 5 and 5 to 3 complimentary strands as they were perfectly opposite in structure.

Parent: 3 parts of DNA- phosphate backbone.. connected to pentose group and the end of the strand is a hydroxyl group- actg- 2 types purine will always bond with pyrmiadine/ A double helix is fascinating... 

Nicole Stan
January 24, 2019 at 7:45pm

Parent: Nicole taught me about what a 4 base pair long section of DNA. She said it has a phosphate backbone, deoxyribose, and a nitrogenous base. The nitrogenous bases are thymine, cytosine, adenine, and guanine. A and T; and G and C are complementary to each other so they always pair with each other. I did not know that DNA ran in a 5' to 3' direction. I also learned that the start codon is AUG and a stop codon can be UAA, UGA or UAG.

Student: I taught my mom about what makes up a DNA strand and how it has a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogenous base which can be A, T, G or C. I reviewed the codons which are only seen in RNA and showed my mom how to write out a complementary strand of DNA from a template strand.

Zach Holtz
October 14, 2019 at 11:56pm

Student:  I taught my mom about the double helix and what it entails. It has two strands of DNA that run from 5' to 3' and 3' to 5'. On each strand, it has a nitrogenous base(A, T, C, and G), a phosphate group, and a pentose group. The pentose connects to two phosphates which each phosphate connects to two pentose and one nitrogenous base. The nitrogenous bases is what holds the two strands of DNA together. A pairs to T and G pairs to C. When it comes to making RNA, the Ribosome takes the 3'-5' strand to create the replication.

Parent:   It's been a long time since I learned this, and it was a nice refresher.  Actually, I learned something.  I don't ever recall the 5' to 3' direction.  I was pleased that I remembered the pairing of the nitrogenous bases (adenine pairs with thymine; guanine pairs with cytosine). Zach explained and labeled the DNA strand and kept explaining the 5' to 3' due to this old brain not fully comprehending.  

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