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ETD 13: A Explain the Role of each in Protein Synthesis: Rna Polymerase, Spliceosomes, Codons, Ribosomes, tRNA. B. Explain the steps that lead to the translation of a section of DNA.
October 10, 2013 at 11:47am


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Marasia Calderon
October 18, 2015 at 4:51pm

Parent: I've learned that protein synthesis is complicated but it helps if you think of this process as a construction analogy. The overall construction site is like the cytoplasm. The mRNA is like the blueprints of the building. The ribosome is the foreman in charge. The tRNA are the trucks that carry the concrete and lumber which is like the amino acids. The DNA is represented by the master plan and the finished building is the polypeptide. 

Student: By explaining this analogy to my dad, I've learned that the RNA polymerase transcribes DNA to pre-mRNA which then becomes mRNA after the EXons are EXpressed and the introns are removed. The construction trucks or tRNA are driven by the anticodons and transport the amino acids to the ribosomes. The ribosome translates the mRNA into the RNA which is released from the ribosome to form the polypeptide or the "finished building".  

Amber Neathery- Period 3
October 28, 2015 at 8:47pm

Parent: I learned that  anything that ends with "ase" is considered  to be an enzyme.  for  instance a polymerase serves to unwind the dna and forms mrna. proteins are made during the translation process which includes a ribosome, which is made of a large subunit and  small subunit.

Student: In reviewing the terms listed, I remembered that the process of protein synthesis commences with transcription and is followed by RNA processing in eukaryotes) and ends with translation. Showing my dad how to express a section of DNA reminded me that the DNA's template strand is complementary to the transcription unit, and that the template strand is not transcribed by RNA polymerase. I also recalled that spliceosomes are made of snRNPs/small nuclear ribonucleoproteins and additional proteins, and that they are almost as large as ribosomes. 

Kate Freeman
January 18, 2016 at 8:26pm

Parent: I learned the somewhat complicated process of protein synthesis. Kate made understanding this process easier by breaking it down into the terms RNA polymerase, spliceosomes, codons, ribosomes, and tRNA which she explained in depth to me. I found it interesting that RNA polymerase is able to unwind DNA to form mRNA which is easier to read the code from. I also learned the processes of transcription and translation and how these lead to the occurrence of protein synthesis. 

Student: I taught my Dad the role of each term in protein synthesis. RNA polymerase is an enzyme that transcribes DNA to RNA. Spliceosomes are bodies that remove introns and connect exons in mRNA. Codons are mRNA that code for amino acids. Ribosomes translate mRNA to amino acids to polypeptide. tRNA is transfer RNA that transports amino acids to the ribosome. I then connected protein synthesis to the processes of transcription and translation whereas the DNA template is transcripted by RNA polymerase into mRNA which is transcribed into a polypeptide by amino acids, tRNA, and the ribosome. Reviewing these terms was helpful in remembering small parts of the process such as snRNPs that make up spliceosomes.

Alyssa Hajek
October 10, 2016 at 10:01pm

Parent: Alyssa explained the process of protein synthesis that occurs at the cellular level via transcription and translation.  She taught me about the enzymes involved in the coding of  DNA into RNA.  She used the analogy of a pizza truck in which the tRNA is the truck that carries the amino acid and the anticodone to the ribosome.  

Student: I taught my mom about transcription and translation.  I taught her about the central dogma and how DNA becomes mRNA and then a polypeptide. I went over what happens at each part and reviewed the vocabulary that went along with it. By teaching her I better understand how transcription and translation work.  I used the analogy of the pizza truck delivering the amino acid to the ribosome.  I also remember RNA polymerase, codons, and tRNA better after explaining it more in depth.

David Ferrer Period 6
October 31, 2016 at 8:40pm

Parent: I learned the many steps of converting the DNA to Protein. From the initial step of changing the DNA to RNA with RNA polymerase. Then I learned how the RNA is changed before it is translated into a polypeptide, made up of amino acids. One thing that I believed was interesting was that RNA contain both non-coding (intron) and coding (exons) segment.

Student: I taught my parents the role of each term from the entry task. Beginning with the conversion of DNA to RNA through transcription by the RNA polymerase. After explaining how the mRNA is produced using the RNA polymerase I remember that the initial RNA produced is also called the primary transcript and is changed by spliceosomes, which cut out the introns and past together the exons. I also told my parents that Exons are expressed and Intron are In the way. And finally went on explaining how a polypeptide is made from RNA in a ribosome and that tRNA is the translator, like rosseta stone that changes the RNA nucleotide code to a polypeptide of amino acids.

Katarina Zosel
October 30, 2017 at 9:52pm

Parent: I found it interesting how translation and transcription are based on the adding of individual chemicals such as a string of nucleic acids or amino acids one at a time. The RNA polymerase and ribosome are like a like a spider shooting out a strand.

Student: It was good for me to look individuality at how each individual piece becomes a part of the overall process of transcription and translation. It was also important for me to look more simply at the process and make sure I could explain why each step occurs in both transcription and translation-  remembering the driving forces of bonding. 

Jacob Michaels
December 17, 2017 at 6:24pm

Parent- RNA polymerase is an enzyme that transcribes DNA into mRNA.  Spliceosomes remove introns and connect exons.  Codons code for amino acids. Ribosomes translate mRNA into polypeptides and they are the site of protein synthesis.  tRNA is transfer RNA.  It matches the anti codon to the codon and transports amino acids. tRNA is like a pizza truck.

RNA polymerase runs along a segment of DNA transcribing a strand of mRNA.  This is called transcription.  Then the mRNA goes through translation into a polypeptide in the ribosome.

Student- Teaching my dad the aspects of protein synthesis helped me remember what each part of it does and how the process works as a whole. Protein synthesis seems complex at first but when you break it down into individual components it's not so bad. My dad also seemed to appreciate the pizza truck analogy.

Nicole Stan
January 24, 2019 at 7:56pm

Parent: Nicole explained how proteins are made and the components, as well as showing us a picture in her textbook. The RNA Polymerase transcribes DNA into RNA. Spliceosomes remove introns in mRNA and connect exons. Codons provide a specific code for Amino Acids. The Ribosomes translate RNA into proteins/polypeptides/amino acid sequences. This is also the site of protein synthesis. tRNA transfers RNA, transports Amino Acids and matches anticodons to codons. She also told us some of the analogies for each of these.

Student: I told my parents about the process of protein synthesis and explained what role RNA Polymerase, Spliceosomes, Codons, Ribosomes, and tRNA have in it. I also told them about how spliceosomes were like scissors and glue because they remove introns and connect exons. This helped me review protein synthesis and some of the major components.

Janey Yee - Period 4
October 06, 2019 at 11:04pm

Parent: I learned about how DNA is transcribed and translated through ribosomes, mRNA, tRNA, codons/anticodons, spliceosomes, and RNA polymerase. Janey explained that it the main rules for genetic expression is DNA to mRNA to proteins to phenotypes. She said the polymerase is what transcribes DNA into mRNA. This happens in 3 steps: initiation, elongation, and termination (like the Terminator?). The spliceosomes then come to get rid of many introns in the mRNA and connecting exons, like a copy and paste function. Then the mRNA leaves and is translated using the ribosome 'factories', where the sequences of 3 letters code for a specific type of amino acid. They are brought over by tRNA (transfer RNA) which is like a pizza truck because the anticodon is the driver and the pizza is the amino acid. The amino acid is cut off when it is finished because it performs hydrolysis after a release factor is put in the A site. Janey showed me a worksheet she got in class 

Student: I told my mom about the process of how DNA is transcribed and translated. I showed her the chart that we did in class and explained the order that things happened. I also used a lot of the analogies we learned in class, like the copy+paste and factories. This helped me remember the order in which things happen in protein synthesis and clarified some things (since I had to go back and look at my worksheet a lot). I also refreshed myself on some concepts in the process, like "Template Strand" DNA and "frameshift" mutations.

Zach Holtz
October 20, 2019 at 9:56pm

Student:   It was nice to go over all the analogies and the process of transcription and translation with my parents. When I was explaining all the terms, I shared about how the RNA polymerase is like a train running from the 3' end of DNA to the 5' end, the ribosomes are factories that put together polypeptides which form proteins, how introns are in the way and exons want to be expressed, and that tRNA are like pizza trucks delivering their package. Going over transcription and how the RNA forms from the DNA caused me to put more thought in how I would come to explain it when it comes to the test, along with translation.

Parent:   Very interesting to hear about the codons, the start triplet group AUG and that there is also a hard stop with UAA, UAG, UGA.  The ribosomes are like a factory that make polypeptides.  The polypeptides are chains of polymers that make up proteins. Introns are "in the way" and exons are wanting to be "expressed".

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