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ETD 59A. Label the parts of a typical flower and describe the funciton of each. B. Explain the process of Double Fertilization. C. Draw and Explain how a Giant Sequoia gets all that it needs for and from photosynthesis.
March 13, 2014 at 10:22am


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Sophie Wulfing
April 12, 2014 at 10:06pm

Flowers have both male and female sex organs - Stamens and Pistils.  The female is the carpel (pistil) which consists of the stigma, style transports sperm, bottom is the ovary.  Ovule is the eggs. Male organs are the pollen sperm), on top of the anther, which produces the pollen.  the filament holds the pollen out so it can be transported.  Sepals are there to protect the flower from wind / rain / heat.  Pedals do to , but they also attract pollinators.  Double fertilization is when two sperm make it into the ovary, one fertilizes the egg int a zygote, and the other fertilizes a second egg, but the second egg already has two sets of chromosomes.  This becomes the endo-sperm which becomes the food for the egg while it's in seed form.  

Sequoia get their energy at the top of the plant (sunlight) but their nutrients from the bottom.  They have two types of vessels to solve this, the phloem transport sugar (generated up high) down word to the roots.  The Xylem transports water up to the leaves.  There are five ways for this to work. 1) water is polar so it follows itself up the tree through cohesion.  Adhesion is when the water is attracted to the side of the xylem .  The stoma (pores) open up and let in CO2 and let out H2O.  This allows for evapotransportation vacuum which creates a lower pressure at the top of the plant.  The Zylum works like a straw.  


The flower parts are pretty basic, but the process of double fertilization is a little confusion as to where the already 2n zygote comes from when the sperm fertilizes it again, making it 3n. As for the vascular plants, it's important to remember that on of the ways it works is through cohesion and adhesion as it travels up the xylem

Madison Boggan
March 15, 2015 at 8:42pm

Parent: Ferns do alternation of generations. This means that they spend half of their life as half cells and half as full cells. The fern life begins as a spore which is like a survival capsule. The spore is eventually fertilized and becomes a zygote. A fern is then developed and spores are located on it to start the process again. 

Mosses are different because they spend most of their life as haploid as to where other plants spend most of their life as full cells. 

Student: I explained alternation of generations to my mom by using the analogy that the life cycle of a fern is like clothes in a washing machine / dryer spinning around-it continues in a cycle with clothes going in and out. The clothes spend part of their "life cycle" wet and part "dry" just like ferns spend part of their haploid and part diploid.

Mosses are opposite. Paralleling the analogy, moss clothes would start in the dryer then go back to the washing machine. 

Madison Boggan
March 16, 2015 at 3:39pm

Parent: Flowers are both male and female because they have both types of reproductive organs. The female part has stigma which collects pollen, a style to transport it and ovaries where she keeps her eggs. The male parts are called anthers which produce pollen and filaments that hold the anthers up. Petals attract pollinators and sepals protect the flower.

Double fertilization is when plants make babies and a "snackpack". There is double the fertilization happening to make these two things.

A sequoia gets what it needs because it is a vascular plant. This means it has tissues that transport water up to the top from the roots where there is water in the ground and food down to the bottom where it needs food as it doesn't get as much sunlight to make it itself.

Student: I explained the double fertilization concept to my mom like this: If you put a bug (baby flower) into a box with a lid that would only be single fertilization because there is a baby and protection around it. If you put a bug in a box with a lid AND gave it food inside, that would be double fertilization because the baby would have protection and food, a snackpack or endosperm in the plant's case.


Madison Neyers
April 12, 2015 at 7:48pm

Parent: Learning that flowers are both male and female was very interesting. I did not know that they had both male and female parts. It is interesting how similar the human reproductive system is compared to plants. Madison explained double fertilization as well. It was interesting to know that the outter part of a seed is used as the food for the baby as well as protection. 

Student: Showing my mom how each part of the flower is involved in the reproductive system really helped me to better understand. It makes sense because form equals function. The stigma has a long style to push itself out so that it has more space around it that could allow pollen to fall on. The filaments holding out the anthers provide an extension as well for the sperm in the pollen to be easily transported by a pollinator or the wind. It was interesting to learn about the spikes on the petals that help to flick the pollen up to the stigma when the pollinators are near the petals. I thought this was a really inteteresting adaption.

Madison Neyers
April 12, 2015 at 8:44pm

Parent: By using vessels, even a 300 foot tall sequoia can maintain balance by transporting water to all vital parts of the tree. The two types of vessels are xylem and phloem. Xylem moves water from the roots and phloem is made of all living cells and transports sugars made from photosynthesis.

Student: I made some connections like the xylem and phloem are elevators. One elevator is out of service and only moves up to bring water throughout the building. The other elevator is used to move both down and up to bring food throughout the building. Also, plants use stoma to control water during gas exchanges. The stoma can open or close using K+ guard cells. I always remember this by thinking of K+im K+ardashians lip injections. 

Amber Neathery
March 22, 2016 at 1:39am

Student: The stamen (male reproductive organs) are made up of the anther, which holds pollen, and the filament, which holds up the anther. The pistil/carpel (female reproductive organs) consist of the sigma, which catches pollen, the style, which transports pollen, and the ovary-- the womb. I remember the male parts because "stamen" allows the part of the flowers to "stay men" and the anther is like antlers in that males have them. I remember some female parts because there is social stigma about women accepting sperm, women are expected to have style, and they have ovaries just like flowers do. The female reproductive organs are called the pistil or carpel because women should always carry a pistol in their car.

Next, during double fertilization, the first sperm fertilizes an egg: the two haploids make a diploid {n+n=2n}. The second sperm combines with two haploid cells to form the endosperm sack {n+n+n = 3n}.

 Lastly, the 300 ft sequoia gets light from its leaves and transports nutrients through its xylem and phloem. Water potential and hydrogen bonds also distribute water throughout the tree. In this way, xylem, phloem, water potential, and H bonds are like a 4-car train that operates throughout the tree.

Parent: my first impression of the lesson is that it is a lot of information to learn. amber made the parts of a flower easier to understand by using analogies. sequoias can be so large because of water potential. 


Zach Holtz
March 11, 2020 at 7:36pm

Student:   It was good to go over the different parts of the flower.  There is the pistil which includes the stigma, style, ovary, and ovules.  The reproduction part is pollen, anther, and filament.  And there is also the petals and the sepals.  It was also good to remember what double fertilization is.  It is the process of making seeds.  There are an embryo and a "snack pack" that forms.  

Parent:   It was fun to learn what makes up a flower.  I found it funny that seeds have a snack pack.  It reminds me of me.  I always send my kids out with snacks.  I also found it interesting how the sequoias get everything they need for photosynthesis.  The tree is a vascular plant which means they have straws to transfer all the water and sugars.

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